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Globally, copper, silver, and gold orebody grades have been dropping, and the mineralogy surrounding them has become more diversified and complex. The cyanidation process for gold production has remained dominant for over 130 years because of its selectivity and feasibility in the mining industry. For this reason, the industry has been adjusting its methods for the extraction of gold, by utilizing more efficient processes and technologies. Often, gold may be found in conjunction with copper and silver in ores and concentrates. Hence, the application of cyanide to these types of ores can present some difficulty, as the diversity of minerals found within these ores can cause the application of cyanidation to become more complicated. This paper outlines the practices, processes, and reagents proposed for the effective treatment of these ores. The primary purpose of this review paper is to present the hydrometallurgical processes that currently exist in the mining industry for the treatment of silver, copper, and tantalum ore separation, as well as concentrate treatments. In addition, this paper aims to present the most important challenges that the industry currently faces, so that future processes that are both more efficient and feasible may be established.
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